Nipple Areola Reconstruction
The last phase of breast reconstruction is restoration of the nipple and the surrounding areola. The nipple is usually recreated by using small local flaps of tissue rearranged to create a nipple mound. This procedure results in the creation of the nipple but also some scars following the operation that can be masqueraded by tattooing. The areola can be created with a skin graft or with tattooing. In fact, 3-D tattooing can also be used to create the illusion of a nipple that projects somewhat. Nipple areola reconstruction can be done in the office under local anesthesia or in conjunction with other work on the reconstructed breast during outpatient surgery.